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emasculation and hybridization techniques in chickpea

Average success rates of F1 plants with pink flowers were 7.08 and 15.66% for method I and II, respectively. Emasculation. Emasculation techniques and detached tiller culture in wheat x maize crosses Emasculation is a method of “Artificial Hybridization” generally used to promote cross pollination in plants and avoid self pollination. Abstract. ; Choice of parents. Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization Objective of hybridization The chief objective of hybridization is to create variation. Emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis. The removal of anthers is done without injuring the pistil. worked OLit. Pink was dominant over the white colour. Emasculation and hybridization techniques 4-5 2. Chickpea is a strictly self-pollinated species. The major chickpea-producing countries of the world (Table 1) are India (68%), Turkey (11%), and Pakistan (8%). Author information: (1)International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India. The following methods are widely used for hybridization in rice. After the emasculation, flowers are covered with a paper bag until pollination (Basra, 1999). Handling of segregating generations: pedigree method 14-16 4. Ovules were cultured and embryos were later dissected to obtain hybrid plants. Chickpea is grown over an area of nearly 10 million ha in the world with a production of 7.1 million tons and productivity of 706 kg ha-1. In this approach, increase in the yield of a variety is obtained by correcting the weakness in the yield contributing traits e.g., tiller number, grains per spike, test weight etc., of the concerned variety. This step of removal of anther using forceps is termed as emasculation. Hybridization Methods of Plant Breeding in Cross-Pollinated Crops. 2011;710:93-105. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61737-988-8_8. These plants were albinos and morphologically resembled C. pinnatifidum. When two genotypically different plants are crossed, the genes from both the parents are brought together in F l. Handling of segregating generations: bulk method 17-18 5. Lines with white and pink flowers were used as female and male parents, respectively. Selfing and crossing are the essential procedures in crop improvement process. In cases where physical removal is not possible, other methods are adopted. Types 4. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an annual, diploid and autogamous grain legume.Most breeding processes developed in this crop start with complementary crosses, but artificial hybridization is a tedious operation probably due to the injury of the pistil caused during emasculation due to the small size of the flowers. The potential medical consequences of emasculation are more extensive than those associated with castration, as the removal of the penis gives rise to a unique … 1. Procedure 4. It mainly depends upon the objective of breeding programme. The success rate of hybridization is often low in Results are presented in Table 1. 2 a. Chloroplast of hybrid showing few and disorganized thylakoids (x 60 800); b. improved thylakoid organization in chloroplast of in vitro cultured shoots of hybrid ( x 33 000); c. normal chloroplast of C. pinnatifidum ( x 40 000) 8) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in often cross pollinated crops : Cotton, Sorghum, Pigeonpea How ever, successful hybridization involves both science and skill. The exact procedures used to ensure self or cross-pollination of specific plants will depend on the floral structure and normal manner of pollination. Self fertilization is favoured by the position of receptive . ; Evaluation of parents. Since maximum number of spikelets open on the 3rd or 4th day of anthesis, panicles of that stage are selected for emasculation. Pollination without emasculation: an efficient method of hybridization in soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Hybridization is the primary step towards generating segregating populations. Objectives of Hybridization. Bagging. Emasculation techniques in wheat x maize crosses J. Agric. Crossing techniques in rice differ based on the method of emasculation. Prunus flowers have frequently been emasculated by this method (Moore & Janick 1983) but for pear and apple, more precise techniques … An experiment was conducted to identify the optimum time of emasculation and pollination of chickpea to obtain high percentage of hybrid seed set under greenhouse conditions at Debre Zeit Research Center. In the case of unisexual flowers, this step is not necessary. It requires temperature of 15-20° C for fruit setting. Mallikarjuna N(1), Muehlbauer FJ. In addition to other objectives, increased yield is always an objective for the breeder. 17. It also varies with the season, crop health, How-ever, successful hybridization involves both science and skill. Objectives of Hybridization 3. Pollination without emasculation: an efficient method of hybridization in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Hybridization is the primary step towards generating segregating populations. There Lec 12 Emasculation and Pollination Techniques 51-53 Lec 13 Maize 54-57 Lec 14 Red gram 58-64 Lec 15 Sugarcane 65-70 Lec 16 Methods of breeding – introduction and acclimatization 71-79 Lec 17 Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization 80-88 Lec 18 Back cross method and various modified methods 89-99 Success of the crosses varies from crop to crop. These are dipping the panicle in hot water (50°c) for 10 minutes as practiced in Sorghum, or through chemical treatments like dichlorophenoxy acetic acid maleic hydrazide, as practiced for plants like wheat. 7) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in cross pollinated crops : Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya, Sugarcane. Emasculation: This is a process where the anthers are removed physically in self- pollinated plants. GL 769 and a wild species C. pinnatifidum was obtained after emasculation, pollination and application of growth regulators. 1. It also varies with the season, crop health, Botany. Several techniques have been tried in emasculating flowers of which the simplest has been the finger nails on first three fingers. Hybridization/ Crossing technique (Emasculation & Pollination) in … In the fall of 2014 she interned in the the Cook laboratory at UC Davis, where she learned methods associated with greenhouse hybridization of wild chickpea accessions (donor-Turkey) with elite chickpea cultivars (recipient). Meaning of Hybridization 2. 2000). If the performance of parents used for breeding is known, evaluation is not necessary. Cotton is generally emasculated by forceps and scissors and should be emasculated later in the afternoon. Chickpea lines with white (GNG 422 and K 1030) and pink (C 235 and Avrodhi) flowers were crossed with (method 1) or without (method II) emasculation. Chickpea hybridization using in vitro techniques. Thus, anthers have to be removed from a bisexual flower before they release pollen grains. Tomato is self pollinated crop. Emasculation is the process of removing anthers from bisexual flowers without affecting the female reproductive part (pistil), which is used in various plant hybridization techniques. Emasculation of chickpea in method I (with emasculation) ranged from An interspecific hybrid between Cicer arietinum cv. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will learn about the Meaning of Hybridization Method of Crop Improvement:- 1. Hybridization Methods of Plant Breeding in Self-Pollinated Groups 5. Interspecific hybridization between Cicer arietinum and C pinnatifidum 395 Fig. 6) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in self pollinated crops : Sesame, Chickpea, Okra, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli. Meaning of Hybridization: Individual produced … within the cone anthers and the normal pendant stigma position of the flower.

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